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Glimpse of European History Thread #261

Posted by RB Kollannur on January 2, 2023

An everlasting empire finally crumbles.

Alas, all things that begin will eventually end.

But with every ending, there is scope for a new beginning.

Murad was born in 1404 to Mehmed. Mehmed was the son of Bayezid, the Ottoman Sultan who was captured by Timur in 1402. This led to a period of anarchy in the Sultanate. By 1413, Mehmed had managed to defeat his brothers and take over as Sultan of the entire Sultanate. 1/10

Murad II, Ottoman Sultan, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murad_II#/media/File:Paolo_Veronese_(Nachfolger)_-_Sultan_Murad_II._-_2237_-_Bavarian_State_Painting_Collections.jpg

The Ottoman had Sultanate emerged in late 13th century after the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm was defeated by the Mongols. Many beyliks rose up in the Anatolian peninsula, one among which was ruled by the ancestors of Bayezid, Mehmed and Murad. 2/10

In the 14th century, the Ottomans were able to take advantage of civil war in Constantinople to develop a base in Europe, eventually making Edirne in Europe their capital. Bayezid expanded into Europe defeating the Bulgars and enforced vassalage on Slavic principalities. 3/10

Bayezid I, Ottoman Sultan, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayezid_I#/media/File:Bayezid_I_by_Cristofano_dell'Altissimo.jpg

Sultan Bayezid also expanded into the Anatolian peninsula annexing other beyliks. Though his capture and death in captivity led to a brief reversal of fortunes, it began to stabilize once Mehmed overcame his brothers. However, Mehmed died in 1421. 4/10

Mehmed I, Ottoman Sultan, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmed_I#/media/File:Mehmed_I_miniature.jpg

Murad succeeded his father as Sultan, but it was not an easy succession. The Emperor of Constantinople, Manuel Palaiologos, intervened in Ottoman affairs by backing competitors to the throne. However, by 1425, Murad had overcome them and reimposed tribute on Constantinople. 5/10

Manuel II Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaiologos#/media/File:Manuel_II_Palaiologos_(cropped).jpg

Next, Sultan Murad beseiged Thessalonica. The Greek city had fallen to the Ottomans earlier but had been retaken by Constantinople after the disaster of 1402. By 1430, Thessalonica was back in Ottoman hands. However, the Ottomans now had other threats to face. 6/10

Ottoman Sultanate in Europe in 1410, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Thessalonica_(1422%E2%80%931430)#/media/File:Map_of_the_southern_Balkans,_1410.svg

The Karamanids of Anatolia allied with the Serbs and the Hungarians in Europe against the Ottomans. The Ottomans were initially successful, but after the Holy Roman Empire and Poland came to back their fellow Europeans, Sultan Murad had to deal with defeats. 7/10

Anatolia in 1450, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karamanids#/media/File:Eastern_Mediterranean_1450.svg

By 1443, Niš and Sofia had been retaken by the Europeans. After another defeat at Jalowaz in 1444, Sultan Murad made peace with his opponents and abdicated from the throne, leaving his 12 year old son, Mehmed, in charge. 8/10

Mehmed II, Ottoman Emperor, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmed_II#/media/File:Gentile_Bellini_003.jpg

Christendom amassed at Varna to push the Ottomans out of Europe. Led by the young Polish king Władisław and the Hungarian general János Hunyadi, the Christians got the initial advantage. But a rash assault by the king eventually led to a comprehensive victory for Murad. 9/10

Battle of Varna of 1444, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Varna#/media/File:Chelebowski_varna.jpg

Murad returned as Sultan in 1446. He led the Ottomans to victory against the Hungarians at Kosovo in 1448 and overcame the Timurids and the Karamanids in the east. He died in 1451 and was succeeded by his son, Mehmed, who went on to conquer Constantinople in 1453. 10/10

The Fall of Constantinople in 1453, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Constantinople#/media/File:Le_si%C3%A8ge_de_Constantinople_(1453)_by_Jean_Le_Tavernier_after_1455.jpg

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 30, 2022.

Murad, Ottoman Sultan (1421-1444, 1446-1451) – A period of consolidation for Ottoman presence in Europe and the setup of its eventual conquest of Constantinople, its capital for over 450 years.


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Glimpse of European History Thread #260

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 22, 2022

When the Romance sustained the fallen empire of the Latins, there were a few who sought a different script.

Rastislav was born in early 9th century. His father may have been Wistrach and his uncle Mojmír, the Duke of Moravia. Little is known about Rastislav’s youth, until 846 when Franks invaded Moravia and installed Rastislav as the Duke of Moravia. 1/10

Rastislav, Duke of Moravia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rastislav_of_Moravia#/media/File:Prince_Rastislav.JPG

Moravia emerged as a semi independent state in Central Europe not long after the Franks had defeated the Avars in late 8th century. Moravia was not the first power in the region though. The Slavic states of Samo and of Nitra had lasted briefly during various times as well. 2/10

Mojmír led the Moravians from the 820s, but the Franks exerted a dominant influence over the region. However, the Frankish control loosened during the Frankish civil wars after the death of the Frankish Emperor Hludowic in 840. 3/10

Estimated boundaries of Moravia during its peak, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Moravia#/media/File:Great_Moravia_during_Svatopluk_(en).svg

Mojmír attempted to free Moravia from Frankish control but was eventually forced out of power by Hludowic's son, Hludowic, who got the eastern part of the Frankish realm (Including Moravia) when the brothers made peace in 843. 4/10

Mojmír, Duke of Moravia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mojmir_I_of_Moravia#/media/File:Mojmir_kniieza_Velkomoravske.jpg

Hludowic installed Rastislav as the Duke of Moravia. Rastilav worked to stabilize his control over Moravia and began to expand into the neighbouring regions. As he grew stronger, he also sought to get rid off his Frankish overlords, just like his predecessor. 5/10

Seal of Hludowic (Louis the German), King of East Francia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_German#/media/File:Ludwig_der_Deutsche.jpg

Faced with a Frank-Bulgar alliance on its borders, Rastislav looked to Constantinople for an alliance. Among other things, Constantinople sent them two brothers, Constantine (Better known as Cyril) and Methodius, to spread Christianity in Moravia. 6/10

Cyril and Methodius, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rastislav_of_Moravia#/media/File:Kostol_sv_Kriza04.jpg

The brothers used Slavonic language and devised the Glagolitic alphabet for fulfilling their responsibilities. The alliance between Moravia and Constantinople, however, was not fruitful, since Hludowic besieged his wavering vassal and deposed him in 869. 7/10

Glagolitic alphabets, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glagolitic_script#/media/File:Glagolitic_script.svg

Rastislav was captured and imprisoned, where he later died. The Franks replaced him with his nephew, Svatopluk, who had to come terms with the Franks initially. But with Frankish power weakening and Bulgars occupied with Constantinople, Svatopluk was able to expand Moravia. 8/10

Svatopluk, Duke of Moravia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svatopluk_I_of_Moravia#/media/File:Bratislava_Profesionalita_maestra_Kulicha.jpg

After Methodius died in 885, Svatopluk expelled his disciples from Moravia. They later ended up with the Bulgars, who had by then had come to terms with Constantinople. The Glagolitic alphabet eventually evolved to become the Cyrillic alphabet used to the present day. 9/10

South East Europe in 850 with Moravia in the north, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boris_I_of_Bulgaria#/media/File:Balkans850.png

After Svatopluk's death, the state of Moravia collapsed with their vassals in Bohemia displacing them. The name of Moravia continued as a Margraviate within Bohemia for many centuries. 10/10

Margraviate of Moravia within Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire in 1618, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margraviate_of_Moravia#/media/File:Locator_Moravia_within_the_Holy_Roman_Empire_(1618).svg

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 22, 2022.

Rastislav, Duke of Moravia (846-869) – The origin of the Cyrillic alphabet in present day Slavic languages.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #259

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 18, 2022

An ancient empire, formally united but informally fractured, is torn apart after a foreign invasion.

Decades later, it is revived but without a few missing pieces.

Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck was born in 1815 to Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck and Wilhelmine Luise Mencken. Hailing from Schönhausen, the Bismarcks were a prominent noble family of the Kingdom of Prussia, with connections in Pomerania. 1/10

Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Bismarck#/media/File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-2005-0057,_Otto_von_Bismarck_(cropped).jpg

Prussia became a kingdom in 1701, but its major part was Brandenburg in the centuries old Holy Roman Empire. Invasion by the French in early 19th century led to the dissolution of this empire, with many of its regions joining Napoleon backed Confederation of the Rhine. 2/10

The Germany that Bismarck grew up in was a divided one. After Napoleon was defeated, the broken empire became a loose confederation of states led by the Empire of Austria and the Kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Württemberg and Saxony. 3/10

German Confederation, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Bismarck#/media/File:Deutscher_Bund.svg

Bismarck moved to Berlin, the capital of Brandenburg, for his studies, with a brief stint at Göttingen in Hanover. A stint in the Prussian civil service did not last (apparently because he got bored), and he returned home to manage his family estates. 4/10

Schönhausen I Manor, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sch%C3%B6nhausen#/media/File:Schloss_Sch%C3%B6nhausen_Sammlung_Duncker.jpg

In 1847, Bismarck attended the Prussian legislature. He contributed to "Neue Preußische Zeitung" and quickly gained the reputation of being a conservative royalist. He also favoured use of force to counter the liberal revolutions that swept through Europe the following year. 5/10

Neue Preußische Zeitung, popularly called Kreuzzeitung because of its Iron Cross logo, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreuzzeitung#/media/File:Kreuzzeitung_Titel_ab_1848.jpg

He also opposed an attempt to reunite Germany since he expected Prussia to get sidelined. As a staunch royalist, Bismarck soon became Prussia's representative in Frankfurt, where German unification was discussed, and later as ambassador to Russia and France. 6/10

German National Assembly at Frankfurt, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Empire_(1848%E2%80%931849)#/media/File:Bilderrevolution0380.jpg

In 1862, the Prussian king Wilhelm recalled Bismarck to resolve his conflict with the Prussian legislature. Bismarck became the Minister President of Prussia but was unable to get the military budget the king wanted. But events elsewhere changed things in favour of Bismarck. 7/10

Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_I,_German_Emperor#/media/File:Kaiser_Wilhelm_I._(cropped).jpg

In 1863, Denmark attempted to bring Schleswig under a joint Constitution, which was a violation of an earlier agreement with Prussia and Austria. Bismarck took the lead in war with Denmark which ended with most of Schleswig becoming Prussian and Holstein Austrian. 8/10

Second Schleswig War (1864), taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Schleswig_War#/media/File:Karte_Deutsch-D%C3%A4nischer_Krieg_Milit%C3%A4rereignisse.png

In 1866, it was Holstein's turn to face Prussia. Austria allied with Hanover, Hesse-Kassel and Nassau, but were defeated by Prussia. Bismarck had allied with Italy, who sought Venetia and Friuli ruled by the Austrian Habsburgs. The divided Austrian force lost both wars. 9/10

Europe and an expanding Prussia in 1867, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austro-Prussian_War#/media/File:Europe_1867_map_en.png

North German Confederation was formed in 1867, with Prussia at its centre. In 1870, Bismarck manoeuvred the French into a war against Prussia, leading to other German states supporting Prussia. German victory eventually led to the reunification of Germany (without Austria). 10/10

German Empire of 1871, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Germany#/media/File:Deutsches_Reich_(1871-1918)-en.png

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 18, 2022.

Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany (1871-1890), Minister President of Prussia (1862-1873, 1873-1890) – His contributions were crucial towards the reunification of Germany in 19th century.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #258

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 15, 2022

The republican who united a kingdom.

Camillo Benso was born in 1810 to Michele Benso, Marquis of Cavour, and Adélaïde Suzanne de Sellon. The Bensos were prominent nobility of Savoy. Camillo also had a distinguishing French connection thanks to his mother and his godmother Pauline, sister of Emperor Napoleon. 1/10

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour and Prime Minister of Italy, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camillo_Benso,_Count_of_Cavour#/media/File:Camillo_Benso_Cavour_di_Ciseri.jpg

The early 18th century saw the French under Napoleon occupy Savoy. But the Bensos managed to see through it in a favourable manner eventually. Young Camilo's career prospects improved with his appointment as page to Carlo Alberto, Prince of Carignano in 1824. 2/10

Michele Benso, Marquis of Cavour, taken from https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michele_Benso_di_Cavour#/media/File:Michele_Antonio_Benso_marchese_di_Cavour.jpg

Prince Carlo Alberto belonged to a cadet branch of the House of Savoy that ruled the Duchy of Savoy and the Kingdom of Sardinia. In 1824, he was also next in line to the ducal and royal titles, since King Carlo Felice had no children. 3/10

Carlo Alberto, King of Sardinia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Albert_of_Sardinia#/media/File:Ritratto_di_S.M._Carlo_Alberto_di_Savoia.png

But Benso was neither keen on the post, nor got along with the prince. In 1826, he ended up as a lieutenant in the engineering corps. However, this period saw him exposed to liberal and republican values that contradicted with his state. He resigned his commission in 1831. 4/10

Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Mazzini#/media/File:Giuseppe_Mazzini.jpg

He lived in Savoy managing his family estate in Grinzane, taking an interest in the agriculture and the economy of his region. He also travelled extensively in Europe and developed on his earlier views. His written works also gained popularity in Europe. 5/10

Grinzane Castle, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinzane_Cavour_Castle#/media/File:Grinzane_cavour_castello.jpg

In 1847, Benso began Il Risorgimento, a newspaper with a liberal theme and directed at Italian nationalism. Italy, which had been divided for centuries, was in the hands of Savoy, the Pope, the Bourbons of Two Sicilies, the Habsburgs of Lombardy Venetia and many more. 6/10

Italy in 1843, with Sardinia / Savoy in the north west, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Italy#/media/File:Italy_1843.svg

1848 was a year for revolutions across Europe and Italy was not immune. Savoy went to war against the Habsburgs but lost in the end. King Carlo Alberto abdicated soon after the defeat and his son, Vittorio Emanuele, became the king of Sardinia. 7/10

Battle of Novara in 1849, when Sardinia lost to the Habsburgs, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Italian_War_of_Independence#/media/File:Novara_Villa_Mon_Repos_1849_Prina1863.jpg

In the new ministry formed under Massimo d'Azeglio as Prime Minister of Sardinia, Camillo Benso became the Minister of Agriculture and Trade. Later, he also added Finance. But by 1852, Benso had displaced d'Azeglio as Prime Minister. 8/10

Vittorio Emanuele II, King of Italy, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_II#/media/File:Vittorio_Emanuele_II_ritratto.jpg

Benso, who had come to be known as Count of Cavour, was able to diplomatically manoeuvre the French, ruled by his godmother's nephew Emperor Napoleon III, into an alliance against the Habsburgs. This eventually led to the annexation of Lombardy by Sardinia. 9/10

Battle of Solferino, where the French and the Sardinians defeated the Habsburgs, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Solferino#/media/File:Yvon_Bataille_de_Solferino_Compiegne.jpg

The war led to revolutions across central Italy, helping Cavour annex central Italy for Sardinia, despite the loss of Nice and Savoy to France. With Garibaldi acquiring southern Italy, the Italian peninsula (except for Rome) was reunited by the time Cavour died in 1861. 10/10

Cartoon of Cavour and Garibaldi "uniting" Italy, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camillo_Benso,_Count_of_Cavour#/media/File:Garibaldiecavour.JPG

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 15, 2022.

Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Prime Minister of Italy (1861), Prime Minister of Sardinia (1852-1859, 1860-1861) – His contributions were crucial towards the reunification of Italy after 13 centuries of division.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #257

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 10, 2022

A principality in the middle of a civil war becomes a haven for refugee princes.

Many new monarchs arose from among these princes, while the civil war in the principality continued intermittently for centuries.

Iaroslav Vladimirovich was born around 980 to Vladimir Sviatoslavich, Grand Prince of Kiev, and Rogned of Polotsk. Vladimir was initially supposed to rule only in Novgorod, but he had taken Kiev and Dereva from his brothers by 980. 1/10

Iaroslav Vladimirovich, Grand Prince of Kyiv, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaroslav_the_Wise#/media/File:80-391-1549_%D0%9F%D0%B0%D0%BC'%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA_%D0%AF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D1%83_%D0%9C%D1%83%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC%D1%83.jpg

Iaroslav was given an early charge of Rostov and, later, of Novgorod by 1010. But he sought Kiev and rebelled against his father, when he saw that one of his many brothers may be given Kiev. However, Vladimir died in 1015 and his domain got divided between his sons. 2/10

The Rus' state divided amongst the sons of Vladimir in 1013, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principality_of_Pereyaslavl#/media/File:Kievan-rus-1015-1113-(en).png

Eventually, it was Sviatopolk who got hold of Kiev. But Iaroslav soon invaded Kiev and expelled Sviatopolk, with the help of the Rus' of Novgorod and Scandinavian mercenaries. Sviatopolk returned with Polish help and recovered Kiev. 3/10

Vladimir and his sons, taken from https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%80_%D0%A1%D0%B2%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87#/media/%D0%A4%D0%B0%D0%B9%D0%BB:Prince_Vladimir_Svyatoslavovich_with_sons_(Granovitaya_palata,_1881-2).jpg

The Polish help did not last and Iaroslav was able to expel Sviatopolk again in 1019. Iaroslav's troubles were not over though. In 1024, he was defeated by his brother, Mstislav of Chernigov. But the two made up and decided to divide the Rus' state between themselves. 4/10

Polish intervention in Kiev, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_I%27s_intervention_in_the_Kievan_succession_crisis#/media/File:Matejko-chrobry_at_Kiev_(Kijow).jpg

Iaroslav cultivated strong ties with his neighbours. While his father had allied with Constantinople, Iaroslav allied with Sweden, marrying Ingegerd, daughter of the Swedish king. Mercenaries from Scandinavia were also useful for service in Constantinople. 5/10

Ingegerd and Iaroslav, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingegerd_Olofsdotter_of_Sweden#/media/File:%D0%AF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2_%D0%9C%D1%83%D0%B4%D1%80%D1%8B%D0%B9_%D0%B8_%D0%98%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B4_%D0%A2%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE.jpg

The Swedish connection also brought him refugees fleeing the Danish invasion of Norway, including the later king of Norway, Harald "Hardrada" Sigurdson. Princes of Hungary and England also found refuge in Iaroslav's court, escaping from rivals taking over their home nation. 6/10

Daughters of Iaroslav - Anastasia (Queen of Hungary), Ielizaveta (Queen of Norway), Anna (Queen of France), taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaroslav_the_Wise#/media/File:Daughters_of_Yaroslav_the_Wise.jpg

Harald "Hardrada" Sigurdson became King of Norway in 1046, after years in service of the Emperor of Constantinople, while Prince András became king of Hungary the same year, after the Hungarians expelled the Venetian Pietro Orseolo, who had become their king in 1038. 7/10

András, King of Hungary, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_I_of_Hungary#/media/File:Andrew_I_(Chronica_Hungarorum).jpg

They were both married to Iaroslav's daughters and so was the French king, Henri. Iaroslav's sons, meanwhile, married Polish and Byzantine princesses. After Mstislav's death in 1036, Iaroslav acquired his territory reuniting most of his father's vast realm. 8/10

Anne of Kiev departs for France, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaroslav_the_Wise#/media/File:%D0%9E%D1%82%D1%8A%D0%B5%D0%B7%D0%B4_%D0%BA%D0%BD%D1%8F%D0%B6%D0%BD%D1%8B_%D0%90%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B_%D0%AF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D1%8B.jpg

Iaroslav developed Kiev taking Constantinople as an inspiration. He managed to acquire Halych from Poland and relieve Kiev from a Pecheneg siege. But his plans for Constantinople were met with failure. He died in 1054 ruling for almost 40 years. 9/10

Russkaya Pravda, part of which is attributed to Iaroslav, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russkaya_Pravda#/media/File:The_instance_Sinodal%60niy_of_Pravda_Ruskaya_page_1.jpg

He divided his domain between his many sons, with Iziaslav, his eldest surviving son, succeeding in Kiev and nominal head. However, Iziaslav was deposed by the people of Kiev in 1068 and soon fraternal rivalries emerged keeping the Rus’ state divided for centuries. 10/10

Rus' in 1054, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kievan_Rus%27#/media/File:Principalities_of_Kievan_Rus'_(1054-1132).jpg

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 10, 2022.

Iaroslav Vladimirovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (1019-1054), Prince of Rostov (996-1010), Prince of Novgorod (1010-1034) – The emergence of Rus’ state as a European nation with ties across Europe.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #256

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 8, 2022

A kingdom sought by two dynasties.

But both die out in quick succession in the male line.

Another emerges, with a noble ruling as king in all but title, on behalf of his son crowned as king.

Birger Magnusson was born around 1210 to Magnus “Minnesköld” Bengtsson and Ingrid Ilva. Magnus was the grandson of the powerful Scandinavian noble, Folke, while Ingrid may have been a descendant of Sverker, King of Sweden in mid 12th century. 1/10

Birger Magnusson, Jarl of Sweden, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birger_Jarl#/media/File:Birger_Jarl_Riddarholmen_Stockholm.jpg

The kingdom of Sweden claimed land on the western and eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in the 13th century. However, the crown itself was held between two dynasties since Sverker's death in 1156; by Sverker's family and that of Erik who became king after Sverker. 2/10

Sweden in early 13th century, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_XI_of_Sweden#/media/File:Sweden_1220.png

Birger's family retained an influential position in Sweden during the rule of both dynasties. His paternal uncle, Birger "Brosa" Bengtsson, was the Jarl of Sweden when Knut Eriksson was king. The senior Birger also retained strong marital ties with the family of Sverker. 3/10

Seal of Birger "Brosa", taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birger_Brosa#/media/File:Birger_Brosa.png

In 1222, the family of Sverker died out in the male line with the death of King Johan. His sister, Helena, was married to Sune Folkason, a grandson of Birger Brosa. Erik Eriksson, from the family of Erik, became the new king. 4/10

Seal of Erik XI, King of Sweden, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_XI_of_Sweden#/media/File:Erik-eriksson-laspe.gif

In 1243, King Erik married Katarina, daughter of Sune Folkason and Helena, in 1243 connecting the two royal dynasties. Birger Magnusson, by the meantime, had married King Erik's sister, Ingeborg. 5/10

Seal of Princess Ingeborg of Sweden, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingeborg_Eriksdotter_of_Sweden#/media/File:Ingiburga_of_Sweden_(1210s)_seal.jpg

Birger was appointed Jarl of Sweden by 1248. His predecessor, Ulf, was likely a son of Birger's uncle, Karl "Döve" Bengtsson. Two years later, King Erik died without any children. As the king's brother-in-law, Birger may have been a potential candidate for the throne. 6/10

Valdemar, King of Sweden, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valdemar,_King_of_Sweden#/media/File:Waldemar_of_Sweden_(1240s)_bust_2009_Skara_(2).jpg

Instead, Birger's eldest son, Valdemar, born around 1237, was elected as king. But given the new king's minority, it was the Jarl Birger who really ruled Sweden. He cultivated strong ties with his neighbours, Denmark and Norway, though not in Finland. 7/10

Swedish invasion of Finland, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Swedish_Crusade#/media/File:Joseph_Alanen_-_Conquest_of_H%C3%A4me.jpg

There had been intermittent warfare between the different tribes on either coast of the Baltic Sea, but by the time Birger died in 1266, Sweden had consolidated its hold over Finland. Finland remained part of Sweden until 1809, when it was conquered by Russia. 8/10

An expanding Sweden under the rule of Jarl Birger and his descendants, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Sweden_(800%E2%80%931521)#/media/File:Scandinavia1219.png

It was only after 1266 that Valdemar could rule independently. However, he was soon deposed by Birger's younger son, Magnus "Ladulås" Birgersson, in 1275. The subsequent kings of Sweden were descendants of King Magnus. 9/10

Magnus III, King of Sweden, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_III_of_Sweden#/media/File:Magnus_III_Barnlock_of_Sweden_as_Duke_bust_2009_Skara_(2).jpg

The dynasty peaked under another Magnus, a grandson of the first Magnus, who ruled both Sweden & Norway. His grandson, Olav, was the last of Birger's house, dying young, but as king of Denmark and Norway, setting the stage for his mother to unite Scandinavia under her rule. 10/10

Map of Kalmar Union taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalmar_Union#/media/File:Kalmar_Union_ca._1400.svg

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 8, 2022.

Birger Magnusson, Jarl of Sweden (1248-1266) – The Swedish conquest of Finland which led to Swedish rule in Finland for close to six centuries

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Glimpse of European History Thread #255

Posted by RB Kollannur on December 2, 2022

Refugees from a fallen nation seek audience with an emperor.

As mercenaries for the emperor, they enforce the imperium on his enemies.

But they still remain in search for a new home to call their own.

Bayan was born likely in early sixth century AD. He may have been part of the ruling elite of a Central Asian Khaganate known as Rouran / Juan-Juan / Jeoujen Khaganate. The Khaganate thrived between mid fourth century AD to mid sixth century AD. 1/10

Coins from Bayan's nation, from 6th or 7th centuries, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pannonian_Avars#/media/File:Coins_of_the_Avars_6th-7th_centuries_CE_imitating_Ravenna_mint_types_of_Heraclius.jpg

In 555, the Rouran Khaganate was dismantled by the Göktürks, who formed the first Turkic Khaganate in the region. Many of the "Rouran people" were assimilated into the new khaganate, but some managed to flee elsewhere. 2/10

Rouran Khaganate, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rouran_Khaganate#/media/File:Nirun,_Tuyuhun,_Yueban,_Tuoba_Wei.jpg

In 557, a confederation of tribes approached the Alans of the Caucasus mountains seeking an audience with the emperor in Constantinople. The emperor's nephew, Iustinus son of Germanus, was called upon and an embassy was arranged between the confederation and the emperor. 3/10

The many tribes of Asia, Africa and Europe in 500, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sabir_people#/media/File:NE_500ad.jpg

Kandikh, the emissary of the confederation, sought land to live on and gifts in return for service (in battle) to the emperor. The emperor used them to subdue Sabirs, Utigurs, Kutrigurs & Saragurs, who were troubling the imperial provinces and allies north of the Black Sea. 4/10

Emperor Iustinian I, who makes good use of Kandikh and his confederation of tribes, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justinian_I#/media/File:Mosaic_of_Justinianus_I_-_Basilica_San_Vitale_(Ravenna).jpg

Bayan emerges as the leader of the confederation by 562. Having defeated the tribes assigned to them, the Avars, as the confederation was called, looked to settle in the Lower Danube region within the Roman empire. However, they were denied by the emperor. 5/10

Coin of Emperor Iustinus II, who succeeded Iustinian in 565 and prevented Avars from settling down in the empire, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justin_II#/media/File:Solidus_of_Justin_II_(obverse).jpg

Bayan then looked west to the land of the Thuringii near the River Elbe. But the Thuringii were tributaries of the Franks. Bayan's battles with the Franks of Austrasia led by Sigebert were largely mixed and did not lead to any region for the Avars to settle down permanently. 6/10

The Frankish kingdoms in 561, with the Thuringii in the east, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francia#/media/File:Division_of_Gaul_-_561.jpg

In 567, Bayan reached an alliance with the Lombards to invade the kingdom of the Gepids. Bayan defeated the Gepids and took over their land along the River Danube. The Avars also gained the land of the Lombards since they soon moved to the Italian peninsula. 7/10

Kingdom of the Gepids, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gepids#/media/File:Gepid_kingdom_6th_century.png

However, the Gepid cities of Sirmium and Singidunum fell into imperial hands. Bayan unsuccessfully beseiged Sirmium, but managed to gain a tribute from the empire in the process. The next decade saw intermittent warfare between the Avars and Constantinople. 8/10

Coin of Emperor Tiberios II Constantinus, who succeeded Iustinus II and had lost a battle against the Avars before becoming emperor, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberius_II_Constantine#/media/File:Tiberios_II_(obverse).jpg

Bayan captured both Sirmium and Singidunum by 582, as Constantinople was occupied with wars against Persians. He made deep inroads into imperial territory in the Balkans, while collecting tributes from them. It took until 592 for the empire to begin reversing their losses. 9/10

Coin of Emperor Mauritius, who succeeded Tiberious II and reversed some of the gains made by the Avars against the empire, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_(emperor)#/media/File:Solidus_of_Maurice_(transitional_issue).png

Bayan is believed to have died by 602 by when Mauritius had been overthrown in a rebellion. The Avar Khaganate weakened after his death but continued its battles against Constantinople besieging the city in 626, before getting dismantled by the Franks after 796. 10/10

Avar Khaganate in 650, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pannonian_Avars#/media/File:Pontic_steppe_region_around_650_AD.png

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on December 2, 2022.

Bayan, Khagan of the Avars (562-602) – The Avar Khaganate lasted over two centuries in present day Hungary bringing with them Bulgars, Slavs and tribes from Central Asia that later made Europe their home. They filled the power vacuum in Eastern Europe that happened due to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the slow degradation of the Eastern Roman Empire. 

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Glimpse of European History Thread #254

Posted by RB Kollannur on November 29, 2022

A region dominated by its neighbours for centuries finally breaks free.

The independent nation lasts less than a century before another conquers them.

Centuries later, the region and the nation gain their independence from foreign rule once again.

Tvrtko Kotromanić was born in 1338 to Vladislav Kotromanić and Jelena Šubić. Vladislav was the younger brother of Stjepan Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia. The Kotromanić family ruled Bosnia as vassals of their neighbours, the Kings of Hungary. 1/10

Tvrtko I, King of Bosnia, taken from https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tvrtko_I._Kotromani%C4%87#/media/Datoteka:Tuzla_-_Spomenik_Kralju_Stjepanu_Tvrtku_I_Kotromani%C4%87u_(2019).jpg

One of the Slavic states of South East Europe, Bosnia had been ruled at different times by the Romans of Constantinople, the Hungarians, the Bulgars and other Slavic states like Serbia and Duklja. But after 1180, they had managed to obtain a certain degree of autonomy. 2/10

Serbia under Časlav in 960, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principality_of_Serbia_(early_medieval)#/media/File:Serb_lands_in_the_9th_century_(en).png

In 1180, Bosnia was a vassal of Constantinople. But with imperial rule usurped in Constantinople, Ban Kulin allied with Hungary & Serbia to break away from the empire. The next two centuries saw Hungary attempt to impose their overlordship over Bosnia, at times successfully. 3/10

Bosnia in 1360, as a vassal of Hungary during the rule of Lajos I, who would also rule Poland, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_I_of_Hungary#/media/File:Louis's_kingdoms_and_his_vassal_territories.png

In 1326, Stjepan Kotromanić added Hum (Zahumlje) to the Banate of Bosnia. In 1353, Stjepan died without a male heir. His only daughter, Jelisaveta, had married Lajos, King of Hungary, earlier in the year. Tvrtko succeeded as Ban with his father, Vladislav, as regent. 4/10

Clockwise - Roughly Raska (Serbia), Zeta (Duklja / Montenegro), Trebinje and Hum (Zahumlje / Herzegovina) and Bosnia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_Bodin#/media/File:Serbian_Kingdom_under_King_Constantine_Bodin-sr.svg

Vladislav died in 1354 and was followed as regent by Jelena. In 1357, the Hungarian king claimed part of Hum as dowry and enforced his vassalage over Bosnia. But in 1363, Tvrtko was able to withstand the Hungarian forces when they invaded Bosnia. 5/10

Lajos I, King of Hungary, Croatia and Poland, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_I_of_Hungary#/media/File:Louis_I_(Millennium_Monument).jpg

In 1366, Tvrtko had to face a rebellion by the nobles, who installed his brother, Vuk, as Ban. But Tvrtko reconciled with his brother and took power back with Hungarian support. He soon managed to consolidate his position in Bosnia. 6/10

Tvrtko, Vuk, Jelisaveta and Jelena at the death bed of Stjepan Kotromanić (With Saint Simeon), taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vuk,_Ban_of_Bosnia#/media/File:Stephenkotromanicthesecond.PNG

Tvrtko also gained territory as the Serbian empire imploded. He allied with Lazar Hrebljanović against Nikola Altomanović in 1373 and expanded his rule. Tvrtko also had a theoretical claim to Serbia since his paternal grandmother was from the Serbian royal dynasty. 7/10

Divisions of the Serbian Empire after 1360, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serbian_Empire#/media/File:Serbia_1360_en.png

In 1377, Tvrtko crowned himself King of Serbia and Bosnia. He continued to expand further into the Slavic lands around Bosnia, although his stronghold remained Bosnia. In 1388, he had to see off an Ottoman invasion, when the Bosnians defeated the Ottomans at Bileća. 8/10

Kingdom of Bosnia, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Bosnia#/media/File:Medieval_Bosnian_State_Expansion-en.svg

Tvrtko died in 1391 and was succeeded by Dabiša. But the kingdom soon came to be dominated by the nobility, especially the Kosača family who carved out their own domain in Hum. But the bigger threat were the Ottomans who eventually annexed Bosnia in 1463. 9/10

Battle of Kosovo, in which Bosnia sided with other Slavs against the Ottomans, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kosovo#/media/File:Battle_of_Kosovo,_Adam_Stefanovi%C4%87,_1870.jpg

The Kosača family held on to Hum, with Stjepan Kosača taking the title of Herceg (Duke) in 1448. But by 1470, they had to submit to the Ottomans, who annexed Hum by 1482. Stjepan's son, Stjepan Hercegović (Hersek Ahmed) later became the Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. 10/10

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on November 29, 2022.

Tvrtko Kotromanić, Ban of Bosnia (1353-1366), Ban of Bosnia (1367-1377), King of Bosnia (1377-1391) – Bosnia breaks the shackles of foreign rule and last close to a century as an independent nation. The time period also saw the beginning of the association of Herzegovina with Bosnia, reflected in the present day nation, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #253

Posted by RB Kollannur on November 25, 2022

A city caught between an empire and an emergent nation.

As the enemy closes in, the city's defenders stand their ground and then take the battle to the invaders.

A state of cities begins its journey to freedom.

Adrian von Bubenberg was born around 1434 to Heinrich von Bubenberg, Schultheiss of Bern and Lord of Spiez, and Anneli von Rosenegg. The Bubenbergs were a prominent family of Bern and had been holding the post of Schultheiss (Similar to a Mayor) on and off since 1235. 1/10

Adrian von Bubenberg, taken from https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian_I._von_Bubenberg#/media/Datei:Bubenbergdenkmal1.jpg

Bern was part of the territory ruled by the Zähringens in the Holy Roman Empire. When the ruling Zähringen line died out in 1218, places like Bern began to exert their independence. Their cause was aided by general chaos in imperial rule after the Hohenstaufens died out. 2/10

The powerful families of Swabian region of the Holy Roman Empire in 1200, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Z%C3%A4hringen#/media/File:Schweiz_um_1200.png

In 1338, the Bubenbergs acquired the Spiez castle. Bern was also growing by the time. But things were stabilizing in the empire though, and there was another stronger power in the region to contend with – the Habsburgs who had tasted royalty couple of times. 3/10

The region near Bern in 1315, with Habsburg ruled area marked in fuchsia (?), taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_of_the_Old_Swiss_Confederacy#/media/File:Historische_Karte_CH_1315.png

Bern was not alone in resisting Habsburg domination in the region. Three cantons, Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden, had allied together and defeated the Habsburgs in 1315. Bern joined their ranks in 1353. The Confederation defeated the Habsburgs again in 1386. 4/10

The Swiss Confederation in 1385, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_of_the_Old_Swiss_Confederacy#/media/File:Historische_Karte_CH_1385.png

Both the Confederation and Bern expanded at the expense of the Habsburgs. However, there was soon internal strife when Zürich backed by the Habsburgs went against the Confederation. Bern too had its battles against neighbouring Fribourg, with Savoyard support. 5/10

Heinrich von Bubenberg leading Bern against Fribourg, taken from https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_IV._von_Bubenberg#/media/Datei:Schilling_Spiezer_Chronik_772.jpg

Heinrich von Bubenberg played an important role in the Peace of Einsiedeln in 1450 that closed Zürich's war with the Confederation. By the time Adrian succeeded his father in Spiez, he had to deal with another growing power in the region – the Burgundians of France. 6/10

Bern and the Swiss Confederation in 1474, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_of_the_Old_Swiss_Confederacy#/media/File:Historische_Karte_CH_1474.png

Adrian von Bubenberg became Schultheiss of Bern in 1468 for the first time. To the west of the Confederation was the Burgundian lands ruled by Duke Charles, who was looking to expand his domains. Adrian sought a peaceful resolution, but reality turned out very different. 7/10

The territories ruled by the House of Valois-Burgundy with the Swiss Confederation to its south-east, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgundian_Wars#/media/File:Karte_Haus_Burgund_4_EN.png

The city of Bern chose to side with France against Burgundy. In 1475, while Burgundy was occupied in Köln and Lorraine, Bern invaded Vaud, held by a Burgundian ally. Charles retaliated after taking Lorraine but was defeated by the Swiss at Grandson. 8/10

Battle of la Planta, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_on_the_Planta#/media/File:Bataille_de_la_Planta.jpg

But Charles advanced on to Bern. Bubenberg, who had been exiled in 1474, returned to lead the Bernese force besieged at Morat, near Bern. It was yet another defeat for the Burgundians. Charles would later die in battle in 1477, attempting to retrieve Lorraine. 9/10

Battle of Morat, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Morat#/media/File:Schilling_battle_morat.jpg

Bubenberg died in 1479 and was succeeded by his son in Spiez. The Confederation became de facto independent soon afterwards (Formal independence happened only in 1648). Bern continued to grow annexing Vaud by 1536, while the Swiss Confederation added more cantons. 10/10

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on November 25, 2022.

Adrian von Bubenberg, Schultheiss of Bern (1468-1469, 1473-1474, 1477-1479), Lord of Spiez (1464-1479) – The Swiss victories over Burgundians in 1477 was a crucial step towards an independent Switzerland.

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Glimpse of European History Thread #252

Posted by RB Kollannur on November 22, 2022

A once powerful nation was divided into many parts for many centuries.

And then a thousand marched to reunite the country.

Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi was born in 1807 to Giovanni Domenico Garibaldi and Maria Rosa Nicoletta Raimondi in Nice. Coming from a family associated with the sea, Garibaldi also took to the sea becoming a merchant captain. 1/10

Giuseppe Garibaldi, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi#/media/File:Giuseppe_Garibaldi_(1866).jpg

For many centuries, Nice had been part of Savoy. But in 1807, it was part of the French empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte. After Napoleon was defeated in 1815, it reverted to its Savoyard rulers, who also ruled Piedmont and Sardinia. 2/10

Growing up, Garibaldi was influenced by the views of Giuseppe Mazzini, who sought to reunite Italy. In 1834, Garibaldi took part in an insurrection in Piedmont with Mazzini, but the move failed. Garibaldi was condemned to death but managed to flee to France. 3/10

Giuseppe Mazzini, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Mazzini#/media/File:Giuseppe_Mazzini.jpg

Italy had last been united as a single nation in the sixth century. Since 924, Italy had been divided into many independent and semi-independent regions under various rulers, especially in north. The invasion by Napoleon had reignited the sentiment towards a united Italy. 4/10

Garibaldi then spent time in South America playing an active role in the rebellion by Rio Grande against Brazil and, later, in a civil war in Uruguay. He gained reputation as a capable military leader, especially in guerrilla warfare. But his thoughts remained on Italy. 5/10

Garibaldi at the Battle of Sant' Antonio, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi#/media/File:The_Battle_of_Sant'Antonio,_Uruguay_in_which_Garibaldi_participated,_in_1846.jpghttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi#/media/File:Garibaldi_and_his_men_carrying_boats_from_Los_Patos_lagoon_to_Tramandahy_lake_during_the_Rio_Grande_do_Sul_War..jpg

In 1848, as populist revolutions sped through Europe, Garibaldi returned to Italy, ending up in Milan in an attempt to free Milan from centuries of Habsburg rule. But ultimately Milan stayed Habsburg. The Habsburgs of Austria also ruled Lombardy and Venice regions of Italy. 6/10

Garibaldi in defense of Rome in 1849, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic_(1849)#/media/File:Garibaldi_Captures_four_French_Guns_at_Rome.jpg

In 1849, the Pope fled from Rome and Mazzini, Garibaldi and others took over the administration of the city. But they were unable to sustain their defence of Rome against French troops. While Garibaldi received acclaim for his defence of the city, he was soon in exile again. 7/10

A Roman republic in 1849 AD, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic_(1849)#/media/File:Rossetti_-_Proclamazione_della_Repubblica_Romana,_nel_1849,_in_Piazza_del_Popolo_-_1861.jpg

In 1854, Garibaldi returned to Italy. He was invited by the Sardinian Prime Minister to join forces against the Habsburgs. Garibaldi earned victories in Varese and Como. Sardinia gained Lombardy from the Habsburgs, although they had to give up Nice and Savoy to the French. 8/10

Garibaldi in the Alps, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi#/media/File:Garibaldi_in_the_Alps_1.jpg

In 1860, he led an expedition of around thousand men to Sicily. The foreign origin Bourbons ruled both Sicily and southern Italy. Garibaldi sought to provide support for local rebellions. In the end, Garibaldi and his men manage to expel the Bourbons from southern Italy. 9/10

Expedition of the Thousand, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi#/media/File:Garibaldi_departing_on_the_Expedition_of_the_Thousand_in_1860.jpg

In 1866, Garibaldi helped Sardinia gain Venice from the Habsburgs. His attempts to acquire Rome were however less successful. The Kingdom of Italy had been formally recreated in 1861 and it was only in 1870 that Italy finally managed to capture Rome as well. 10/10

Battle of Bezzaca of 1866, when Italians led by Garibaldi fought the Habsburgs, taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bezzecca#/media/File:Bataille_de_Bezzeca.jpg

Originally tweeted by Ranjith Kollannur (@Arby_K) on November 22, 2022.

Giuseppe Garibaldi – His contributions were crucial towards the reunification of Italy after 13 centuries of division.

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